A wide array of substances, that can be found in Marine Phytoplankton, support and modulate the immune system. The two most important substances are: Omega 3 fatty acids and carotenoids (pigments). (1-7)
These substances have the potential to more rapidly active the immune system and through the production of mediators that stimulate the body to adequately deal with any kind of virus, bacteria or yeast (8). In the final phase of acute inflammation, the Omega-3 fatty acids produce anti-inflammatory mediators, making sure the body returns to its natural state (9).
Other ingredients such as lipopolysaccharides, peptides, minerals and vitamins also improve the global functioning of the immune system (10).
Some of these substances have multiple functions, like astaxanthine supporting the immune reaction as well as detecting and scavenging harmful oxygen molecules, giving the potential to detoxify the body (11) (12).
In one of our latest blogs we have discussed the immune system in more detail. Learn why several nutrients found in Marine Phytoplankton contribute to the immune system.read blog
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Please click below to see which scientific articles were used to gather information concerning the subject.
(1). Desbois A, Thien Le P “Antibacterial Effect ofEicosapentaenoic Acid against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus:Killing Kinetics, Selection for Resistance, and Potential Cellular Target” MarineDrugs (2017): Nov 1;15(11):334. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29104213/
(2). D’Orazio et al. “Marinebioactives: pharmacological properties and potential applications againstinflammatory diseases” Marine Drugs (2012): Apr;10(4):812-33. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22690145/
(3). Heo et al. “Anti-inflammatory effectof fucoxanthin derivatives isolated from Sargassum siliquastrum in lipopolysaccharide-stimulatedRAW 264.7 macrophage” Food and Chemical toxicology (2012): Sep;50(9):3336-42. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22735499/
(4). Mosser D, Edwards J “Exploring thefull spectrum of macrophage activation” Nature reviews. Immunology (2008):Dec;8(12):958-69. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19029990/
(5). Kong et al. “Fucoxanthin-RichBrown Algae Extract Decreases Inflammation and Attenuates Colitis-associatedColon Cancer in mice” (2016): 4(3), 137-147. http://www.sciepub.com/JFNR/abstract/5765
(6). Chenet al. “Partial Characterization, the Immune Modulation and AnticancerActivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Filamentous Microalgae Tribonema sp” Molecules (2019): Jan17;24(2):322. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30658396/
(7). Manzo et al. “A new marine-derived sulfoglycolipid triggers dendritic cell activation and immune adjuvant response”Scientific Reports (2017): Jul 24;7(1):6286. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28740080/
(8). Jyonouchiet al. “Studiesof immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. II. Astaxanthin enhances in vitroantibody production to T-dependent antigens without facilitating polyclonalB-cell activation” Nutrition and Cancer (1993): 19(3):269-80. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8346076/
(9). NowakJ. “Anti-inflammatorypro-resolving derivatives of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids”Postepy Hig Med Dosw (2010): Mar 17;64:115-32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20354260/
(10). Shannon E, Abu-Ghannam N. “AntibacterialDerivatives of Marine Algae: An Overview of Pharmacological Mechanisms andApplications” Marine Drugs (2016): Apr; 14(4): 81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4849085/
(11). Monk et al. “Oxygen toxicity and superoxide dismutase as an antioxidant in physiological stress” (1989): July. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1989.tb06219.x
(12). HughesD A. “Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults” Nutrition Society (1999): Feb;58(1):79-84. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10343344/